Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Kinds of Stories

Allegory (Alegória)
A story in which characters, events, and setting are all symbolic. Usually the characters (postavy) are animals that speak and act like people. Animal Farm, by George Orwell is an allegory, explaining the rise of Communist Russia.

A Comedy (Komédia)
A funny story, with a happy ending.
A Fable (Bájka)
A very short story that illustrates a lesson or moral (morálka). Characters are often animals that speak and act like people. A fable is like an allegory, only much shorter, and with a simple message. For example, the tale of the Turtle and the Rabbit teaches children to not be arrogant.
A Fairy tale (Rozprávka)
A charming fantasy, usually with a happy ending, set in the distant time and place, often with symbolic characters. Fairy tales often include elves (elfovia), dragons (draci), goblins (škriatkovia), and fairies (vily). Sometimes there's a moral, and sometimes there isn't.
A Folk Tale (Ľudový Príbeh)
Also called tall tales, a folk tale is a popular story passed down through generations, usually involving exaggerated (prehnaný) characters and situations, usually told in a local dialect. There might be some truth to it. No one knows who wrote it. There are usually several versions of each story. Fairy tales and legends are two kinds of folk tales. In Slovakia, the story of Janušik is a folk tale.
A Legend (Legenda)
A popular story with exaggerated characters that supposedly has some historical basis - this means that some parts of the story might be true and some parts are fiction. There are usually several versions of each story. Legends are like folk tales, although they usually have a hero (hrdina), like King Arthur who does great things. You could say that the story of Janušik is also a legend.
A Myth (Mýtus)
A very old story, once believed to be true, now commonly assumed to be false. Many religions’ are referred to as myths, from ancient Greece to Africa, and Asia. Myths often involve heroes, gods, goddesses, monsters, and creation stories.
A Parable (Podobenstvo)
A brief, simple story about common, everyday people and events, that is meant to teach a lesson or moral. Jesus told many parables. They’re very similar to fables, although the characters are usually people, and one character may symbolize God.
A Parody (Paródia)
A humorous imitation of a character, literary work, or even a manner of speaking, like the medical jargon (slang) spoken by the doctors in “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty.” 
A Satire (Satira)
Ridiculing the vices (neresti) or pretensions (nároky) of individuals or societies in order to inspire reform. Satire is very similar to parody. Satire can be humorous or grim.

Science Fiction (Vedecko Fantastický)
A form of fantasy writing that wonders (čudova sa) about possible future cultures, life forms, worlds, or even other universes. They should have enough scientific basis to make them believable. According to Ray Bradbury, “Science fiction is a logical mathematical projection of reality. [It] is . . . sociological studies of the future; things happen that the writer believes are going to happen. . . .”

Suspense (Neistota)
Any writing where the reader becomes uncertain and anxious about what is going to happen, involving serious danger.

Tragedy (Tragédia)
A literary work with a serious theme carried to a catastrophic conclusion (ukončenie). Someone usually dies.

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