Thursday, March 20, 2014

English Civil War (1642-1651)

v     The English Civil War was actually three wars happening one after the other.

1st war (1642-46)
2nd war (1648-49)
3rd war (1649-51)

v     These wars were fought between Royalists, (also called Cavaliers) who supported the king versus Parliamentarians (called Roundheads because of their short hair).

v     The Parliament was angry at king Charles I for several reasons:

1. Charles I wanted lots of money to fight the 30 Years War. And his commander, the Duke of Buckingham, was incompetent.

2. Charles also married a Catholic princess from France. Many Englishmen worried that his children would be Catholic.

King Charles I with his wife Henrietta Maria and their children.

3. Charles dissolved parliament for over ten years. It was called the “Eleven Years’ Tyranny”. Without parliament, Charles couldn’t raise taxes normally, so he started issuing fines and taxes for things that hadn’t been used in centuries.

4. Charles introduced a strict religion called High Anglicanism, fining Puritans for not attending Anglican churches, and cutting off the ears of anyone who complained. When he tried to extend these rules to Scotland war broke out, called The Bishop’s War, and the Scots won. They occupied most of Northern England and demanded money, daily, or they’d start burning cities.

5. When Charles’s advisor Thomas Wentworth suggested raising an Irish army to crush both the Scots and English, parliament found out, and had him beheaded for treason. King Charles let it happen, fearing for his own life.

6. He gave business contracts to certain people that hurt thousands of average citizens.

v     In 1642 Charles I fled London, fearing for his life. Cities and towns across Britain chose sides.

v     The Parliamentarians won The English Civil War at the Battle of Worcester.

v     There were three results to the English Civil War

1. King Charles I was executed.

2. His son, Charles II was exiled to France.

3. The monarchy was replaced by:

                        1649-53 The Commonwealth of England, controlled by parliament.
                        1653-59 The Protectorate, with Oliver Cromwell as dictator

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)

v     Cromwell’s Protectorate was very strict, closing theatres, and banning music and writing, except for those authors that he liked, for example John Milton.

v     When Cromwell died in 1658, he tried to have his son continue the Protectorate, but he was unpopular. England was falling into chaos, so people decided to bring back Charles II from France, to be king. This is known as the Restoration.

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